Career and Technical Certificates of at least three quarters in length also include a specified amount of credits in related education. The three areas of related instruction are computation, communications and human relations/leadership. A student possessing proven competencies in these areas may be granted advanced standing. The appropriate instructional dean must approve advanced standing placement. These courses also may be footnoted with the following: "This related education requirement may be substituted with any course, or combination of courses, approved by the instructional dean." A minimum grade point average of 2.0 must be maintained. The candidate must earn at least one-third of the credits required for the certificate in residence from the college awarding the certificate.